Fundamental of computer

What will you learn

  • What is input and output devices
  • What is memory device
  • Types of computers
  • Application of Computer

What is computer?

Computer is an electronic machine which accepts input and gives output.


It was invented by “Charles Babbage” who is also known as “father of computer

Usage of Computer

Computer can do calculations,comparison,reading and writing on a given data at high speed.

Computer consists of Hardware and software components.

It is a machine made up of devices that enables us to Enter data (input) ,process it (CPU),store it (memory) and output the results

Hardware: These are visible components such as monitor,CPU,mouse, keyboard.

Software:It is set of instructions that performs different tasks on a computer.Ex:Ms word,Ms Excel, powerpoint.


Input Devices

Input devices of computer

Input devices such as keyboard,mouse enables us to put information into the computer.

It accepts data from user or outside of the environment.It is a hardware device


Keyboard is the most common input device.Data are input by typing letters,words and numbers on the keyboard.

It can sense data to a computer and does not receive any information from it

Keys of keyboard


Functions of mouse

Mouse is a pointing device.It can be rolled over which we can control the movement of the cursor in the screen. We can use drag option in the mouse through which scroll up,scroll down options are use

Mouse was invented by Douglas Engelbart


Output device is a hardware that receives data from computer and convert that data into another format.

Input devices sends data to the computer,output device Receives data from computer

Data’s we typed in system using input device keyboard that can be received from output device printer .

Monitor: The monitor looks like a television screen. It is also called Visual Display Unit (VDU) and it is used to display information from the computer.


A printer is used for transferring data from the computer to the paper. There are colour printers as well as black and white printers. The different types of printers are Dot Matrix Printers, Inkjet Printer and Laser Printers.

Touch Screen

It allows the user to interact with the computer by touching pictures or words displayed on the screen. Touch screens are used to display the output information on the screen as well as to give input by touching the words or pictures on the screen.

Central Processing Unit(CPU)

The main unit inside the computer is the CPU.

It consists of Control Unit and Arithmetic and Logic unit.

All major calculations and comparisons are made inside the CPU and it activates and controls the operations.

Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU):

 The arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) is the part where actual arithmetic operations (e.g. addition, subtraction, multiplication, division )over data received from memory.

Control Unit:

 It directs and controls the activities of the internal and external devices.


Memory device is a hardware used to store our information and data’s in computer.

There are 2 types of memory devices PRIMARY & SECONDARY MEMORY

Computer memory is the storage space in computer where data is to be processed and instructions required for process are stored

How is memory used?

When a program, such as your Internet browser, is open, it is loaded from your hard drive and placed into RAM. This process allows that program to communicate with the processor at higher speeds. Anything you save to your computer, such as pictures or videos, is sent to your hard drive for storage.

Applications of computer